Train Travel

Train travel is an ideal means of transport in the UK and the rest of Europe. Rail travel is fast, practical and convenient in both urban and more rural areas. Railway stations often allow for car hire services if you need access to a car or sometimes need to vent to an area not accessible by train.

Rail travel is often convenient even if you have blown partway to your destination. Train travel works well for personal or corporate travel, and can be an economic way to transport staff to a conference, event venue, or meetings. It can also be a luxurious and comfortable way to transport clients quickly and efficiently. Train travel is a viable option for conferences, annual meetings and other events throughout Europe. You may be pleasantly surprised to learn that you can easily opt for rail travel to or from the UK and mainland Europe.

Booking rail travel is easy thanks to online interfaces that offer planning, scheduling and trip organization services. Both personal and corporate travel arrangements can be made easily and practically online. Whether you need to simply book a rail ticket or opt for a full package, both can be done with little effort. Corporate travel to events including annual meetings, conferences, and other events can be planned quickly and easily. Many online trip organizers even allow you to book airline tickets, car hires, rail travel and accommodations in one step. A well planned trip can be especially important for group travel, or for corporate travel arrangements. Discount on rail fares are even available for groups of more than ten.

Eurostar services offer fast check in and a short trip between London and Paris or Brussels. Eurostar allows you to travel in high speed comfort, with champagne, drinks, and food available at your seat in Leisure Select and Business Premier Classes. Business Premier may be an ideal choice for corporate hospitality or business travel to general meetings, conferences and PR events. Business Premier offers even faster check in services as well as additional business amenities. Standard class offers affordable and practical travel between London and France. Eurotunnel can also offer those traveling by car a helpful and cost effective rail option as you simply drive your car onto the shuttle and make a short 35 minute trip via shuttle to Calais, France.

Train travel is ideal in many ways as a corporate travel option, or even for corporate hospitality events. Comfortable rail travel is convenient and practical, and some train travel routes even offer wireless internet access and charging capabilities for laptop computers. If you are transporting important clients for PR events, product launches or exhibitions, rail travel can be an excellent choice. Train travel is an ideal choice for corporate hospitality, allowing your clientele to use their travel time for business needs or work.

While train travel works well for shorter trips, it is also ideal for longer trips. Sleeper cars are available on some train routes, allowing for a comfortable night's sleep. While train fares can be quite economic, first class seating in the UK and Europe will allow travelers an enjoyable and relaxing ride to their destination. Long distance train services are most apt to offer first class services. These may include more comfortable seating, tables, upgraded décor, meal services and more. Business travelers will also appreciate access to first class lounges in many train stations with wi-fi, power outlets for charging mobile phones, laptops and other electronics, comfortable spaces for meetings, and more.

Rail travel can be more convenient than air travel today, particularly in terms of check in times, and some travelers may simply prefer train travel. Passengers are allowed three pieces of luggage on trains in the UK, two larger items and a smaller piece of hand luggage. Excess luggage may be transported for an extra cost, as can some larger items. Check in via many rail travel companies is quite quick, with Eurostar and others estimating a less than 30 minute check in time. Business travelers in particular may find this speed and efficiency helpful.

If you are planning a corporate event, a product launch, PR events, an annual general meeting or sometimes a corporate conference, offering train travel as an option can be ideal. Train travel is both affordable and comfortable, and can offer the kind of luxury business travelers often prefer. Ample conveniences and accommodations for business travelers will appeal to your clientele. Online booking technology can allow you to schedule your event, book accommodations, rail travel, car hires, and air travel in one easy step. Consider consulting a corporate hospitality specialist to assist you in this sort of planning and make your event a true success. Your clients, employees and others will find train travel an ideal way to begin and end any event.

Travel Europe by Plane, Train, Bus Or Car – It’s Easy

Map out your trip – travel Europe by train, plane, bus or rent a car. This saves you time and money. If you are on a budget, compare prices against train, plane or bus. Check departure, arrival times and length of travel.

By train

Travel Europe by train is still the most popular way to go around. If your life’s motto is to travel light, this is a great way to get to your favorite cities! Find out how many countries you will be visiting. There are certain types of train fares to match your needs. Do you travel during the day when you can admire the scenery? Or at night, while you sleep it out and wake up at your new destination, saving you one night’s stay at a hotel? Travel Europe the way Europeans do! Mix in with the locals. One piece of advise, as back home, please keep your belongings close to you, particularly in the larger cities such as Rome.

I’ve traveled around Europe alone. And for women traveling alone, Europe can be pretty safe. I’ve never had the need to travel at night as I do prefer sleeping in a warm comfy bed. 🙂 While traveling, bring along your drinks. Most train stations have stores and kiosks. It’s hard to be thirsty on board and praying for that guy selling the snacks to show up!

Eurorail or eurail passes can only be purchased while you are still outside Europe. There are special passes depending on the length of your stay, how many times you will be traveling and how many countries you will be seeing. This is handy although if you are covering a few cities at a time, it is best just to purchase point-to-point tickets. During these cases, I buy mine on the spot.

A green way to travel around the UK: Get around on the Virgin train! They’ve got rates from as low as GBP 12.50 one way. And if you book early, they have great deals for first class. First class and saving the environment, what a great combination.

By plane

With people wanting to get to their destination faster and cheaper, European regional airlines come up with promo flights sometimes even cheaper than train fare! Wow! That’s a great way to travel Europe! So instead of travelling overnight on a train, you can choose to fly! There are lots of cheap airlines out there to make us female travelers happy!

British Midland flies from London to several European cities. My Paris to London flight with a group was delayed but the service made up for it. Despite that delay, I still fly British Midland.

I’ve also tried easyjet from Dortmund to Rome Ciampino and Jet2 from Leeds to Amsterdam Schiphol. These are low budget airlines. If I booked fast enough, I could have gotten my Leeds to Amsterdam fare for only GBP 1 (excluding taxes)!

Flying within Italy? Try out My Air. They also fly to several international cities within Europe.

Be aware that you pay for the drinks and snacks on board so make sure you have coins or small bills ready. The flights left on time and in about an hour, you’re in your destination!

On the other hand, there is also a possibility of renting a private jet. Check out Net Jets Europe if you don’t want to wait for flights (like the rest of us mortals).

By car

If you’re the type who loves driving during your vacation and consider map reading a stress-free hobby, then go ahead and rent a car! Driving in Europe is a breeze… that’s what Jan (my hubby) says… I can’t say the same because I don’t know how to drive!

By bus

Europe bus travel is an alternative to going around by train. It’s simple. Hop on, hop off. Coaches now are turning ultra modern. The ride is as smooth as when you’re on board a plane! Bus ride’s your thing the next time you travel Europe? There are several bus companies to choose from.

I travelled on Eurolines’ Amsterdam to Paris drive. We left Amstel Station at about 8pm and arrived in Paris at 6am. There are several toilet stops through the night and because the seats were comfortable, I felt pretty much OK on arrival.

National Express is a UK coach operator that goes to about a thousand places in the United Kingdom and to popular destinations in Europe (with Eurolines) as far as Moscow and St. Petersburg! There are some really great offers so you might just get a chance on a great deal. The trip may take longer than a train but you won’t worry about your luggage since all luggage are stored underneath the coach.

By private coach

The best in land travel, you and your friends and family have the privacy of your very own coach! Plan out your itinerary and have your very own professional driver take you around the continent for the entire duration of the trip. The latest family group I had decided to travel Europe (well, Italy and France) in the comfort and security of their very own deluxe coach, a big plus in their vacation! The kids claimed the back seats to chat all day long and their parents stayed in front enjoying the view!

By ferry

This is a great alternative for those who easily get bored. You get to do different activities on board the ferry so there is never a dull moment while you travel Europe on your own.

Shopping In The City Of Angels – Los Angeles

Los Angeles truly stands up to its nickname – City of Angels. It is an international hub of culture, fashion, business, technology, media, education, science, international trade, entertainment, and of course, fashion. The beautiful shopping areas in the city have their own unique charm and character, which makes them worthwhile to hop on to cheap flights to Los Angeles.

For truly enjoying the spirit of shopping in this beautiful city, a person should know where to head to. Abbot Kinney Boulevard is the street that runs through Venice. Here you can get vintage clothing, handmade furniture, decor shops, perfume shops, bookstores and surf shop.

If you are crazy about vintage clothing, stationary items and sneakers, head to La Brea Avenue. You would just love visiting the skateboarding located here. The stationary shops, especially Dear John and Pulp, have some amazing gifts and letter writing supplies.

Flights to Los Angeles can put you in close proximity to Montana Avenue. Here you will find over 150 shops providing varied shopping options. The shops here consist of designer outlets or privately owned boutiques. You can find never seen before designs and patterns in these boutiques. If you are lucky enough, you may even end up spotting a celebrity or two, as the area is a popular shopping destination among celebrities. This area is also famous for wines, home furnishing and antiques.

However, the best place to go for celebrity spotting is at Robertson Boulevard. While you are waiting to catch a glimpse of one of the famous Hollywood stars, you can visit some of the local boutiques to pick some designer wears. Most of these boutiques treat their customers as celebrities. You will definitely end up feeling extremely important!

If you have saved money post buying cheap tickets to Los Angeles, spend it on boutique shopping. Ventura Boulevard is the Mecca of boutique shopping. This street joins Universal City and Studio City to Sherman Oaks. The celebrities love to shop at Studio City. If you want to follow their example, Studio City is the place. Do take some time out of your busy shopping schedule to check out the shopping area between Coldwater Canyon and Colfax Avenue.

The city offers one of the finest pedestrian shopping areas in the country. If you are a true shopping aficionado, you will want to book inexpensive flight tickets and save sufficient money to spend at West Third Street. The shopping area from La Cienega to Fairfax offers great pedestrian shopping experience. With shops like Cook's Library and Traveler's Bookcase, this area is heaven for book lovers.

For mid-range shopping, Abbot Kinney Boulevard and The Grove are two of the best places. To buy cheap sunglasses, t-shirts, art, craft and souvenirs, Venice Beach is the best place. This place offers you value for money.

Weather – Sydney to Sydney (return): Also, search on these sites -vs- Wego (new windows) Select all |

In this article, we would take a concise journey together throwing some light on the eternal charm Sydney has reserved for years and comparing flights to one of the most visited cities on Earth.

Fancy going away to Sydney? Looking forward to take a flight to the enchanting city of Sydney? It is the right time to set off a venture to one of the most explored cities in the world that have been enticing numerous tourists from far and wide.Yes, we are talking about the enchanting city of Sydney. As and when we proceed with the article, you would get familiar with some of the city's unending gorgeous faces and why numerous wanderers have been taking cheap flights to Sydney which simply calls in for a party. Known as the largest city in Australia, Sydney is without a doubt the place to be where you can catch hold of something so magnetic in the air that it would not let go off your mind not only till the time you are in this bewitching city, but for years to come. If truth be told, there are many avid holidaymakers who have suppressed their memories that they gathered in the city in an album just to cherish them for good.

The city of Sydney welcomes every visitor with arms wide open!

As long as you would be on a holiday in beautiful Sydney, there's only one thing that revolves in your mind "wish you had more time to grab the magnetic effects of the city." This is because of the fact that there are myriad tourist attractions that are eagerly awaiting the touch of discovery but due to the number of restricted days in your bag, you would not be able to capture each of them. You do not have to lose heart because you can plan a holiday again with your loved ones just to grab those hotspots which you could not cover in your previous tour.

Should you compare flights to Sydney?

It is evident that you would be comparing flight tickets to Sydney so that you get the best deal among many of them. Looking forward to soak up the sun on the dazzling, sun-kissed beaches in Sydney? Take a cheap flight to Sydney with British Airways and live the moment that you have been waiting for. The approximate time taken to land in Sydney from London is 22 hours and 50 minutes. There's a halt in Singapore about twelve hours after your flight departs from the British capital where you can enjoy both shopping and sightseeing. Just imbibe yourself in the endless beauty of Sydney.

A number of flights are operated departing from London Heathrow LHR to Sydney Kingsford Smith Airport SYD via a stoppage in Singapore. So, you can become airborne on your way to Sydney as per your convenience. There are other major UK airports that operate various flights to Sydney like Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow, Newcastle and Edinburgh.

So, it's time to make your dreams come true and explore the stunning land down under where various attractions await you and for sure, you would be spoiled for choice. Treat yourself to some amazing sunshine, sparkling beaches and gleaming waters in magical Sydney.

Cheap Flights To and From Europe

Paris:

The capital of France, Paris is a city in Western Europe. Highly owned, it is a global cultural and business center and is also considered as one of Europe's largest economies. It is also known as "the city of lights' and has large number of historical monuments, museums and other attractions that make it a preferred tourist destination.

One of the most visited attractions in Paris is The Louvre, attracting an annual visitor count of about 9.3 million. It houses a collection of 35,000 invaluable pieces of art from all over the world. The Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci is indisputably one of the most renovated pieces of art in the Louvre. The museum also has an intense expanse of galleries that are spread across an area of ​​652,300 square feet. The Eiffel Tower is another important landmark of the city. A global cultural icon of France, it is also one of the most recognized structures of the world. Champs Elysees is one of the scenic avenues in Paris while Notre Dame depicts impressive and fascinating architecture

London:

Both historical and modern landmarks of London draw innumerable tourists throughout the year. Some of the must see attractions of the city include Buckingham Palace, Houses of Parliament, Westminster Abbey, The London Eye also the numerous museums and art galleries. Although maximum attractions lie in close proximity to Central London, attractions also exist outside the city center, thus contributing to its tourism. Tourists flock to this city all through the year to witness a flawless combination of history and modernity.

Berlin:

The capital of Germany, Berlin denotes a vivid confluence of art, history and entertainment. One of Berlin's top tourist attractions is the Reichstag (Parliament Building) that is known for its large glass dome, that offers 360 degree view of surrounding cityscape. The Kaufhaus des Westens (Department Store of the West) is a seven storey shopping hub that is known for its champagne bars, restaurants, beer bars, food and delicatessen counters. One of the largest in Berlin, the Charlottenburg Palace is the city's only surviving royal residence. At the rear there is a large formal garden, a mausoleum, belvedere, a pavilion and a theater.

Vienna:

Lying to the East of Austria, Vienna is situated along the east of river Danube. Internally acclaimed artists like Beethoven, Haydn, Liszt, Mozart and Schubert have their associations with this city. Monuments in its large city center depict to the colonial past and find a position in the World Heritage List by UNESCO. Major attractions in this city are the palaces of Hofburg and Schönbrunn. The city is also known for more than 100 art museums, that totally brings in about eight million visitors every year.

Venice:

One of the beautiful cities in the world, Venice is also known as the city of bridges or the city of water. This one of its kind city has no vehicular movement by cars. The only means to move around are either by water or foot. With more than 100 islands, 150 lakes and about 400 bridges, it is one of the most frequented cities in Europe. One of the distinguishing attractions of the city are the gondolas that offer movement from one part of the city to another. A tour of the city on the 3 km long Grand Canal offers a wide variety of views.

Best and Cost Effective Europe Tour

Planning a trip to one of the numerous European destinates involves a careful analysis of the fares to ensure the trip is completed with minimal burden on the wallet. Cheap carriers are available to Europe from all parts of the world. Passengers can choose to fly to London and take partial short haul flights further to the destination of their choice. This splitting the journey proves to be economic as short haul flights are comparatively cheaper. Planning a trip at the right time of the year also plays a crucial role as it comes with considering saving options. Peak seasons for Europe travel are usually the months of April, May, June, September and October, since comparatively expensive. The months from November to March are usually with low passenger movements into European destinations and this causes reduction in flight fares.

Majority of airline services and travel agencies periodically publish fares on the internet, thereby allowing passengers to compare and book according to their budget. Beside, there are also numerous bidding sites that offer cheap flight fares for the buyers to bid on. The lowest bid wins and that that makes the fare for the journey.

Flight fares also varies on day and time of your travel, with lower fares on Tuesdays and Wednesdays. Lower fares can also be availed for flights concluding at dawn. Some of the airlines also offer promo offers for frequent flyers. So it is often advised to book through same airline as frequently as possible

Soon after deciding on the preferred destination of travel, it is advised to sign up for newsletters of some of the airlines. Doing so keeps passengers updated on the recent and upcoming deals. If lucky, passengers can also consider with accommodation in one of the partnering hotels.

Do not Risk It, Get the Protection and Security You Need With Travel Insurance

Let's face it, getting travel insurance can be a very overwhelming and tedious process, making it easy to put off and even forget absolutely. But before you head off on your international adventure, you might want to consider getting coverage through some travel insurance, just to be on the safe side.

With some luck, you'll be glad it's something you have and will not need to use. But we all know that in life things happen, so it's a good idea to find a travel insurance policy that fits your individual needs, travel agenda, and budget. Many travel agents and private companies offer travel insurance, and they have a wide variety of types and options to choose from.

What does Travel Insurance cover?

Basic coverage of travel insurance includes some financial losses while traveling, as well as limited medical expenses, including medical evacuation. The most common type of travel insurance is trip cancellation or trip delay insurance. This type of policy covers you and your travel companions in case you need to cancel, interrupt or delay your trip. However, the acceptable reasons for canceling or interrupting your trip will depend on the insurance policy, but most likely you'll be covered for the following reasons:

o Sudden business conflicts
o Change of mind
o Delay in processing your visa or passport
o Illness or injury
o Weather related issues

In case your flight is cancelled or delayed, travel insurance companies may provide additional coverage such as expenses that the airlines will not cover, like taxi fares to the hotel or meals during your wait at the airport.

It's also a good idea to have a plan with medical coverage of up to $ 1,000,000 in the case you become ill, need medical assistance, or have a flight accident occur. It's also good to review the amount deductible by your insurance plan (this is the amount you'll need to come up with before the insurance company picks of the rest). Make sure it covers repatriation (evacuation to your home country, rather than the nearest regional medical facility); make sure that does not mean you will be sent to the country where you purchased your travel insurance plan either, but your home country. If you're planning a visit to multiple countries, make sure all the countries are included in the region covered by your insurance policy.

To learn more about these types of coverage and more specialized coverage, read The Basics of Travel Insurance.

To invest or not? How to make travel insurance work for me.

Purchasing traveling insurance is great for insuring your money, should any unforeseen events pop-up, especially if you invest large sums of money on extravagant travel packages. To determine whether you want to invest in travel insurance your not, ask yourself these questions:

o Did you invest a lot of money into your travel plans?
o Are you traveling overseas?
o Which regions or countries are you visiting and for how long?
o Are you planning on participating in any extreme sports?
o Can you afford the cost of your trip back home if any emergency arises?
o Will you be able to afford medical care if you or someone you are with gets sick and needs immediate medical attention?
o How old are you and how is your overall health?
o Do you have any pre-existing conditions that need regular, special attention?

You can purchase your travel insurance for a single trip, multi-trip, or with an annual policy, all depending on how frequently you travel and the length of your trip. Comprehensive travel insurance can cost anywhere from 4% to 8% of the cost of your trip, depending on type of coverage, the length of the trip, the destination, and the age of the travelers. It is best to purchase your travel insurance between 7 to 21 days of purchasing your travel itinerary. Usually the maximum coverage period for insurance providers is for one year abroad.

Go through the fine print on your policy and check wherever you will have to pay on the spot and redeem the money later for any medical expenses, or will the insurance company pay providers directly. If you have to claim it later on, you will want to hang on to all documents.

If you have a pre-existing medical condition, get an insurance policy that will specifically cover it. Also examine adventure sports and activities the plan does and does not cover (rarely does it include scuba diving and hang gliding). Lastly, for your benefit, a policy that is flexible and can be extended while you're already away is recommended. You never know what you'll meet, and you just might want to extend your trip.

Another good tip would be to get in touch with your credit card issuer before investing in travel insurance. At http://www.creditcards.com/ , a credit card information site, suggesting calling your credit card issuer to see if you have any free travel benefits that you may not be aware of, for example, insurance on lost or damaged luggage . However, according to USTIA, canceling a trip at the last minute and being reimbursed by your credit card company is the most common misconceptions among travelers. And sometimes credit card companies have limits on only cover up to 3 months of travel. It's worth investigating.

Lastly, if you have existing health coverage, it would be wise to get in touch with them before hand, especially if you will need vaccinations and other medicine for your trip. Depending on your health insurance plan, ask for a 'travel pack' and they will send you important information regarding your coverage, if any, while abroad. It might turn out you might already have covered for somethings, but not for others.

Where can I purchase Travel Insurance?

There are many sites and companies offering travel insurance online. Among them are leading companies such as World Nomads, Travel Guard, and InsureMyTrip, just to name a few. A new online resource called Squaremouth, helps travelers easily and instantly compare all the major travel insurance plans at one site. You'll be able to get immediate quotes from several major, reputable travel insurance providers and compare policies and their prices. It's a good starting point and one that you can trust.

Helpful Tips for once you've purchased your Travel Insurance:

o Scan your insurance policy electronically and save it somewhere securely online
o Make one copy for yourself to bring on your trip
o Make another copy for a trusted family member to keep at home
o Have the emergency hotline number accessible during your trip, but make sure you try it out before leaving home to ensure its operating and correct
o List out any medications you are taking (including vaccinations for your trip), and a list of allergies you have; keep this with your insurance emergency number
o Keep all receipts at home
o Review all the fine print in your insurance policy and determine which adventures you will be taking and which risks might not be worth it

Finally, get ready for a trip of a lifetime! Hopefully you'll always avoid using your insurance plan, but it will give you and your loved ones more security knowing you're protected.

The Fairchild-Dornier Do-328JET

1. Turbine Triumph:

The power of engines, as historically demonstrated, extends beyond the thrust they produce to move airplanes. They also move passenger-toward a particular aircraft, when it is powered by the type that attracts them.

When the first long-range, pure-jet airliners appeared at the end of the 1950w in the form of the de Havilland DH.106 Comet, the Boeing 707, and the Douglas DC-8, it was concluded that this technology would be restricted to those sectors, since its speed could not be adequately exploited over shorter ones, leaving them the domain of piston aircraft, such as the Convair CV-440 Metropolitan and the Martin 4-0-4.

What was underestimated was the power the pure-turbine had to draw passengers to such airplanes, causing them to demand and ultimately expect this engine type on all route types. And manufacturers responded.

By the early-1990s, history repeated itself. The turbine, it was thought, could never be economically viable on regional-range routes, once again leaving the piston and later turboprop airliners with capacities of between 19 and 50 to serve them. But, when Canadair sparked the regional jet revolution with its 50-passenger CRJ-100 and Embraer closely followed suit with its own ERJ-145, there seemed no market for which the turbofan was not suitable-except, perhaps, for the very thin one, supporting no more than 30 seats.

Passengers again responded. And consensus was once again proven wrong.

2. Regional Jet Revolution:

Although powerplants usually precede designs, in the case of the regional market, designs preceded powerplants and provided the crossroads between larger airliners, business jets, and turboprop aircraft. Regional jets could thus originate from four potential sources.

The first, as previously mentioned, trace their roots to business jets-in this case, to the Canadair CL-600/-601 Challenger, which bred the stretched-fuselage regional airliners that followed it. In the second case, Embraer adopted the twin-turboprop EMB-120 Brasilia into a pure-jet counterpart, the ERJ-145. In the third, an existing airliner, intended for longer-range sectors, was scaled-down to produce a lower-capacity derivative, as had occurred with the MD-95/717, a shrink of the MD-90, and the A-318, a shorter-fuselage version of the A-319. Finally, regional jets originate as all-new designs, such as the Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke VFW-614, the western world’s first 44-seat regional jet; the Fokker F.28 Fellowship, which was succeeded by the modernized F.70 and F.100; and the British Aerospace BAe-146, which itself begot the re-engined Avro International RJ70 to -100 family.

All of these types fueled the regional jet revolution, which created a fundamental change in the market, mirroring the impact the pure-jet engine first had on the long, then medium-, and finally short-range routes, and blurring the line between the major and regional carriers. It also became the most rapidly growing segment of the industry.

According to the Department of Transportation (DOT) report entitled “Regional Jets and their Emerging Roles in the US Aviation Market,” seven US carriers operated 99 regional jets between 126 city pairs and served 103 markets from ten hubs at the beginning of 1998. The domestic regional jet fleet at the time was expected to double, to 200 aircraft, by January of the following year.

And these figures only escalated like the clockwise rotations of analog altimeters installed in climbing aircraft. Indeed, in order to remain competitive and retain market share, airlines were forced to order regional jets. Almost 80 percent of the 570 regional airliners ordered in 1998 were for pure-jets, eclipsing, for the first time, the number of turboprop deliveries the following year with 217 jets as opposed to 120 turboprops. By 2000, 726 regional jet sales were recorded, a 42-percent increase over the year-earlier period and it constituted more than 90 percent of all regional airliners ordered. The diminishing popularity of turboprop types, resulting in a 28-year low in sales, saw the sunset on once ubiquitous models, such as the British Aerospace J41 and the Saab 340 and 2000.

These sales figures, however, reflected more than passenger popularity. Compared to heavier twins, such as earlier BAC-111s and DC-9s-which had not been designed for regional routes, but which were artificially suited for some of them because of then significantly lower fuel prices-aircraft intended, from inception, for this purpose, offered two advantages: their lower structural weights burned less fuel and were rewarded with reduced landing fees, and their decreased thrust capabilities optimized them for lower cruise speeds, since a greater portion of regional flight sectors entail the climb and descent phase than do longer ones.

Barry Eccleston, Executive Vice President of Fairchild-Dornier Aerospace, predicted that the market for regional jets accommodating a maximum of 110 passengers would be worth some $205 billion, amounting to 9,000 aircraft, over the first two decades of the 21st century-or more than two-thirds the $280 billion-worth of ultra large capacity airlines, such as the Boeing 747-8 and the Airbus A-380-except that the regional segment of the industry represented seven times the number of airplanes. He also identified four phases of the regional jet revolution.

The first, entailing the initial breed of 50-seat Canadair CRJ-100s and -200s and Embraer ERJ-145s served to prove the concept, attract the passengers, and demonstrate the economic feasibility of it, its roots planted by Comair in the US and Lufthansa CityLine in Europe. The former initially provided feed to major carrier hubs and the latter bypassed them and instead served short and/or thin sectors between secondary city pairs.

Paving the way by demonstrating the overwhelming passenger acceptance of these aircraft, the 50-seat regional jet planted the seed for the second phase, establishing the seamless service interchange between mainline and microjets and creating demand for pure-jet service on routes even too thin for the 50-seaters. Scaled-down for accommodation of between 30 and 40, these types could altogether replace the comparably sized turboprops, especially since a design such as the ERJ-135, although a smaller derivative of the original -145, was itself a development of the Brasilia turboprop.

Like a rolling snowball, once the concept gained momentum, it was unstoppable and increased in size. So, too, did the aircraft representing the third phase, which offered capacities not unlike the traditional short- to medium-range twins, but at decidedly lower seat-mile costs. Examples of these were the Fokker F.28 Fellowship, the British Aerospace BAe-146, the Fokker F.70 and F.100, the Avro International RJ70 to -100, the Bombardier CRJ-700 to -1000, the Embraer ERJ-170 to -195, the Antonov An-148 and -158, the Sukhoi Superjet 100, and the Bombardier CS-100.

Regional jets accommodating 100 passengers, but flown by major carrier crews because of pilot scope clauses prohibiting their operation characterized the fourth phase.

Closing the gap between major and regional airline profiles, this type of operation entailed the replacement of first generation twins, such as DC-9s and 737s, with their advanced, higher-capacity regional counterparts, yet offered comparable levels of comfort, service, and speed on thinner, point-to-point, hub-bypassing sectors-in the process reducing airport congestion.

Integral to this quad-phase regional jet revolution-and particularly to the second of them-was, of course, the 37-seat Embraer ERJ-135. But, before it even flew, it had competition across the Atlantic, in Europe, in the form of another turboprop-turned-turbofan, the even-smaller Fairchild-Dornier Do-328JET.

3. From Turboprop to Turbofan:

Founded as Dornier-Metallbauten in 1922 by Professor Claude Dornier, that company was known for its massive, 12-engined, Do-X flying boat, becoming Daimler GmbH in 1972 and Daimler-Benz Aerospace 15 years later, when Daimler-Benz itself acquired a majority share holding. It was finally designated Daimler-Chrysler.

Its high-wing, twin-turboprop commuter aircraft, offered in 15-passenger Do-228-100 and 19-passenger Do-228-200 versions, amounted for 270 sales, and led to a 34-seat successor.

Seeking to divest itself of what had intermittently become a loss-making subsidiary, it sold a majority stake of Dornier Luftfahrt, located near Munich, in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, to San Antonio, Texas-based Fairchild Aerospace in 1996. Fairchild itself built the venerable 19-passenger Metro commuter turboprop, which sold in excess of 600 during a 35-year production run, and was initially an international partner in the 34-seat Saab-Fairchild SF-340, which accounted for 456 sales.

The Do-328, in the eyes of new owner Fairchild, had potential, and its strength-literally-lay in its robust, German over-engineered design. Already the second-fastest turboprop regional airliner after the 50-passenger Saab 2000, it lent itself to a minimal-modification retrofit with pure-jet engines, although former design owner Daimler-Benz had consistently failed to see the feasibility of the project.

But additional impetus came from several less-than-positive circumstances. The pure-turboprop version, already weighing 2,200 pounds more than targeted and subjected to high production costs, suffered from fierce competition with similar types, such as the Fokker F.50, itself the product of DASA’s previous Dutch subsidiary, and sales were sluggish.

Based upon Fairchild-Dornier’s survey of 50 worldwide airlines conducted between October of 1996 and January of 1997, passengers preferred turbofans, regardless of route type and length, and a turboprop-to-turbofan transition was not only logical, but left little choice, provided it could offer comparable performance and economics.

Powerplant popularity, however, was not the only factor behind airlines’ orders. One of the latest attractions was the ability of an aircraft manufacturer to offer a family of regional jets, as was beginning to occur with Bombardier and Embraer, so that derivative-associated design similarities and common pilot type ratings would offer the cost-effective flexibility to match capacity to route type and departure time.

Although Embraer’s own scaled-down regional jet was now on the horizon, the economics of such 30-seaters had yet to be proven. Nevertheless, if they could, this type of design was foreseen as fulfilling two purposes: (1). It could replace comparably sized turboprops on existing routes, and (2). It could create an entirely new market-one too long for a turboprop’s speed, yet too thin for the higher-capacity of the increasingly common, 50-passenger regional jets, thus heralding a new class of aircraft.

If successful, it could potentially replace some 1,200 aircraft in US service alone. With the ERJ-135 about to become the second member of Embraer’s regional jet family, and the Do-328 notching up less-than-stellar sales, Fairchild-Dornier had little choice but to combine its existing airframe with turbofan engines or concede the race-already as a distance third-to the other two contenders.

4. Do-328JET:

Modifications to the turboprop’s turbofan counterpart and, in many ways, successor, were few.

Because the fuselage was milled from solid material, the aluminum alloy for the pure-jet version retained more at frames 24 and 26, which corresponded to the wing and undercarriage attachment areas, while the upper-fuselage fairing, which served as the blending point for the wing, was also retained, as were the two aft, ventral strakes previously required by the turboprop’s air flow. Although the powerplant change had rendered them superfluous, they were not removed in order to avoid recertificaton costs.

The newly designated Do-328JET featured a 68-foot, 73/4th-inch fuselage and 69-foot, 9 3/4th-inch overall length.

Utilizing the same TNT (Tragfluegels neuer Technologie), supercritical wing as its Do-328 predecessor-which was originally designed for the smaller Do-228-and equally employing solid-milled skins to minimize the amount of riveting, the regional jet sported a unique planform. Aside from differing in its high-wing mounting, it featured highly-swept leading edges near the wing tip, parallel edges inboard of the engines, and a trapezoidal shape outboard of them.

Combined with the turbofans’ thrust capability, its wings, which retained the turboprop’s inflatable, leading edge boot deicing system, facilitated short-field performance, yet feisty climb rates (of 14.2 minutes to 31,000 feet), offering comparable block times to the ERJ-135 with which the aircraft would eventually compete.

High-lift devices encompassed single-slotted trailing edge Fowler flaps.

Internally, the Do-328JET’s wings incorporated a 200-liter fuel capacity increase, dual fuel pumps, and 30-percent larger-diameter fuel lines.

Sporting a 68.10-foot span and 430.6-square-foot area, they introduced a 100-mm trailing edge flap extension and thus increase in chord, rendering an 11.0 aspect ratio, for an ultimately targeted 400-knot cruise speed.

Like the turboprop -328, the regional jet retained the t-tail, but introduced a larger rudder trim tab to counteract the engines’ greater thrust.

The pylon-mounted, thrust-reverser devoid, 6,050 thrust-pound Pratt and Whitney Canada PW306B engines themselves, replacing the nacelle-shrouded turboprops, were originally developed as -306As for the Galaxy business jet and incorporated an 840-mm, 22-bladed, wide-chord fan; a five-stage high pressure compressor (four axial and a single centrifugal); a two-stage high pressure turbine; and a three-stage low pressure turbine. Compared to the corporate version, the commercial powerplant offered a 30-percent increase in core flow and higher temperature-resistant materials in the high pressure turbine.

In order to cater to the Do-328JET’s increased weights, the twin-wheeled, hydraulically-actuated, tricycle undercarriage featured a Dunlop dual-braking system, with carbon disc brakes; a reinforced trailing link; and an anti-skid system to compensate for the lack of engine thrust reversers. Its nose wheel retracted forward, while its two main units were stored in fuselage-side fairings.

An AlliedSignal GTCP36-150 auxiliary power unit (APU) provided power for cabin lighting and air conditioning and engine starts.

Aircraft access was attained by means of a forward, left, out- and downward-opening, airstair- and handrail-equipped Type I crew and passenger door; a Type III emergency exit apposite it, on the forward, right side; a second Type III emergency exit on the aft, left side; and a Type II galley servicing door on the aft, right side.

Standard cabin configuration entailed 32 to 34 three-abreast, one-two-arranged seats at a 30- to 31-inch pitch and an aft galley and lavatory. Because of the 4,000-foot altitude increase in the Do-328JET’s service ceiling-to 35,000 feet-cabin pressurization was equally increased-from 7.0 to 7.4-psi, yielding an 8,000-foot elevation. Internal dimensions were 33 feet, 10 3/4th-inches in length and six feet, 2.5 inches in height.

Baggage, cargo, and mail were stored in the main deck compartment located between the aft cabin wall and the rear pressure bulkhead and accessed via a port door.

5. Flight Test Program:

Unlike clean-sheet design flight test programs, the Do-328JET’s entailed considerable comparison-between the handling and performance of what had been a 365-knot turboprop to one penetrating the 400-knot realm with pure-jet engines. The transition from one to the other had been even less of a leap than initially imagined, since the first -328JET prototype had been nothing more than the turboprop’s second prototype and even retained several of its features.

That prototype itself, registered D-BJET and rolled out for the first time on December 6, 1997 for public viewing, made its maiden flight from the 7,800-foot runway at Fairchild-Dornier’s Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, complex at 11:16 on January 20 of the following year, piloted by Meinhardt Feuersenger, Chief Test Pilot of the Do-328 turboprop program, and Peter Weger, who, in 1994, had first flown the Eurofighter EF2000.

Maintaining a southerly course over the Bavarian Alps, the aircraft, slated to gauge performance and test envelope expansion, attained a 220-knot speed and 25,000-foot altitude during its almost two-hour sortie.

Evaluating the prototype’s performance in comparison to the turboprop foundation upon which it was based, Feuersenger noted the absence of propeller wash and the smooth, over-wing air flow, no longer needing to continually retrim it as a result of power setting changes. Performance either approximated or exceeded computer calculations.

Assessing the regional jet after landing, Feuersenger said it performed “flawlessly” and “pilots will love this aircraft.”

Three other prototypes took part in the 18-month, 950-flight, 1,560-hour flight test program, which was delayed by four months because of the need to redesign the Dunlop braking system and Messier-Dowty shock absorbers to cater to the aircraft’s deceleration without propeller braking effects. Aircraft D-BWAL, first flying on May 20, was involved in performance certification testing. Avionics integration, the realm of the third prototype (D-BEIR), commenced with its July 10 first flight, and function and reliability testing began three months later, on October 15, when the fourth prototype first took to the air.

The first production-standard aircraft, featuring a five-foot wingspan increase and 8,160-pound fuel capacity, entered its intended aerial realm after the four prototypes.

6. Test Flight:

Initial Do-328JET performance could be gauged by the test flights its prototypes undertook.

The aircraft’s two-person cockpit, with a Honeywell Primus 2000 integrated avionics system, featured five, eight-by-eight-inch CRT displays, the primary flying (PFD) and multifunction (MFD) displays duplicated before each pilot and the engine instrument and crew advisory system (EICAS) located in the center.

The reclinable seats, with five-point harnesses, were equipped with storable armrests and were adjustable forward and aft.

Engine starts, using bleed air from the auxiliary power unit, were automatic, their parameters registered by the full authority digital engine control (FADEC).

After the flight plan had been entered into the flight management system (FMS) and the windshield panels had been electronically heated to prepare them for bird strikes or other foreign object impact eventualities, the twin-jet was steerable by means of its rudder pedals, provided the variation was no more than ten degrees to either the left or right, although sharper turns required the nose wheel steering tiller.

The aircraft was offered with two gross weights. The lower, designated the Do-328-300, could carry a 7,200-pound payload, had a maximum take off and landing weight, respectively, of 33,510 and 31,063 pounds, and a 740-nautical mile range with this payload and reserves at a 31,000-foot altitude. The higher, designated the Do-328-310, could carry an 8,104-pound payload, had a 34,524-pound take off weight and a 31,724-pound landing weight, and a 900-nautical mile range.

A corporate version, the Envoy 3, typically accommodated between 12 and 19 in layouts specified by the operator, but which usually included easy chairs, tables, work stations, divans, sofas, wardrobes, galleys, and lavatories. Additional fuel tankage increased its range to 2,000 nautical miles.

Calculated and entered take off reference speeds varied, of course, according to gross weight and atmospheric conditions. A 27,488-pound ramp weight, for example-including 5,000 pounds of fuel-resulted in V1, VR, and V2 speeds, respectively, of 103, 110, and 117 knots in prototype D-BJET.

Flap settings included 12 degrees for take off, 20 for approach, and 32 for landing.

With the altitude, airspeed, attitude, vertical speed, and cleared altitude visible on the PFD, and the departure track on the MFD, the aircraft, cleared for take off and brake-released, initiated its acceleration run, its throttles advanced and its PW306B turbofans under FADEC control.

A 15-degree pitch angle ensured a best rate-of-climb of a little over 5,000-fpm.

Cruising at its 35,000-foot service ceiling, it assumed a Mach 0.69 speed with a 97.6-percent N1 fan, resulting in a 1,797-pound-per-hour fuel burn. Maximum cruise speed, at 25,000 feet, was 405 knots.

A 4,000-fpm descent rate, to 20,000 feet, was accomplished with a flight-idle power setting and Mach 0.61 airspeed.

The elimination of the previous version’s propellers necessitated a 20-knot increase in approach speed and ground spoilers automatically deploy after touchdown.

7. Sales and Service:

Sales, as with any other aircraft, depended upon quality, price, and the ability to fulfill its design goals. In the case of the Do-328JET, however, that aircraft actually created-and needed to create-its own market niche and therein lay the first obstacle to its orders-namely, was there a requirement for a 30-seat regional jet with in-house competition from its own turboprop and from the likes of the British Aerospace J41, the Embraer EMB-120, and the Saab 340, and could it fulfill its mission as economically as these types?

Not all carriers were likely to follow the 30-passenger pure-jet trend, especially those that saw little benefit in operating a type which was not part of a family, a strong competitive advantage Bombardier and Embraer both enjoyed over Fairchild-Dornier.

So similar, in fact, were its turboprop and turbofan siblings that they shared the same production line and airlines were able to wait until six months before scheduled delivery to choose a powerplant type.

Several factors, however, seemed to indicate its need.

Analyses of 300- to 1,000-mile route sectors revealed that they were either too infrequently served or were done so with inappropriately sized equipment, resulting in low load factors.

Seeking to exploit the former case-in which demand often exceeded capacity-Fairchild-Dornier foresaw initial-and ideal-deployment on traditional 19-seat turboprop routes, which it envisioned as stimulating demand because of its cabin class comfort, in-flight service, and pure-jet speed, the same way the 50-seat regional jets had “recreated” the 30-seat turboprop market.

Finally, because of restrictions inherent in US pilot scope clauses, dictating the number of regional jets that could be operated by major-aligned, code-share partner carriers, orders for turbofan aircraft accommodating 50 passengers or more were limited. Falling below this restriction with its 32 to 34 seats, the Do-328JET was exempt from these regulations. At the same time, it gave carriers the opportunity to close the lower-end service gap between traditional-turboprop capacity and that of the new breed of regional jets, enabling them to substitute mainline flights with increased, businessman-attracting frequencies and those operating during off-peak, service-scarce or altogether -devoid times, particularly midday.

Orders, as with any aircraft, increased as the program progressed. Launched during the 1997 Paris Air Show, the program itself attracted initial orders for six aircraft from Proteus Airlines, based in Dijon, France, and Aspen Mountain Air of the US for four. At the time of its first flight, there were 17 firm and 15-optiioned orders, and by July of 1998, there figures had respectively increased to 51 and 28, of which 11 were for Envoy 3 business versions. Continuing to mount, these totals increased to 75 and 101 by February of 2000 and 141 and 91 by early-2002.

Skyway Airlines, “the Midwest Express Connection” established in 1993 by Midwest Express itself to serve short-range routes and provide feed to mainline flights at its Milwaukee hub with a fleet of 15 19-passenger B1900Ds, took delivery of the first Do-328JET on August 4, 1999, employing it on route-proving sectors before inaugurating it into scheduled service two months later, on October 6.

Although the B1900Ds were suited to certain routes, they created a capacity gap in mainline Midwest’s fleet, whose aircraft featured four-abreast leather seats and premium, all-business class service. Skyway’s Beech aircraft offered little more than standup headroom.

Because 75 percent of Skyway’s traffic was origin-and-destination in nature, and these passengers seldom experienced its parent’s full-service product, its reputation was less than it should have been.

What was needed was an airplane that could accommodate half that of its DC-9s, but offer comparable speed, comfort, and service. The 50-seat CRJ-100/-200 and ERJ-145, considered too close in capacity to them, were quickly discounted.

The solution lay in Fairchild-Dornier’s microjet, of which five were ordered, with another ten on option, and they were seen as serving four purposes.

1). Increase capacity on existing Skyway routes.

2). Inaugurate service between city pairs too dense for its 19-seat B1900Ds, yet too thin for Midwest Express’s own 60-seat DC-9-14s.

3). Replace these DC-9s on short, low-density sectors

4). Add frequency to existing Midwest Express routes during off-peak times.

Featuring the same leather seats, carpets, and sidewall patterns as its parent’s DC-9s, it was able to offer identical service, with cocktails, hot towels, hot snacks, and freshly baked cookies from the aircraft’s dual-oven equipped galley.

Inaugural Do-328JET routes, from Milwaukee, included Grand Rapids, Pittsburgh, Nashville, and Toronto, with the number of daily, per-aircraft sectors, like those of its B1900Ds, nine, except the replacement type considerably reduced their block times-from two hours to 1.20 in the case of Nashville. Its only “inconvenience,” however, was its very speed: although it was higher than that of its turboprops, or about Mach 0.66, it was far lower than the Mach 0.8 of, say, the mainline 737s plying the same airways between VORs, forcing it to accept lower flight levels to avoid traffic conflicts.

Gandalf Airlines, of Bergamo, Italy, became the first European operator of the type, inaugurating service with the first two of 12 ordered aircraft in September of 1999 with three daily round-trips between Milan/Bergamo and Paris.

Atlantic Coast Airlines, like Skyway, was another regional operator aligned with a major US carrier through branding and code sharing agreements-in this case, United and it thus flew under the United Express banner.

Operating 19-passenger Jetstream 31s and 29-passenger 41s, mostly to United’s Washington-Dulles hub, it was able to substitute its 25 Do-328JETs according to demand, frequency, and time of departure.

8. Do-428JET:

Seeking to offer the crucially needed second member of its regional jet family, yet avoid the already-crowded 50-seat market, Fairchild-Dornier launched a stretched version on May 19, 1998 at the Berlin International Air Show, partially in response to often-requested capacity increases.

Having already experienced neck-and-neck competition with the ERJ-135, Fairchild-Dornier anticipated similar conflict with Embraer’s also recently launched, 40-passenger ERJ-140, which shared a 96-percent commonality rate with its smaller predecessor. Both the ERJ-140 and the Do-328JET’s larger brother, the Do-428JET, were aimed at operators that needed a step-up of about ten seats over the smaller-capacity model upon which they were based.

Although it was initially envisioned as a simple-stretch derivative, it quickly became apparent that to do so would have sacrificed its short-field performance, since it offered higher structural and gross weights and only a higher-capacity engine could remedy this deficiency.

According to Stanley Deal, Fairchild-Dornier’s Vice President for the Do-228, -328, -328JET, and -428JET regional airliners, “Our strategy is to add a member to the -328JET family, offering 44 seats… and giving us enough differential between the (-328JET).”

Incorporating forward and aft section insertions, the aircraft, with a new 83.4-foot overall length, introduced a repositioned Type III emergency exit and a second, aft Type I door, accommodating between 42 and 44 passengers at a 31-inch seat pitch in a “new look” cabin, which was 44.7 feet in length. The enlarged baggage compartment behind it had a 336-square-foot area.

A modified wing, with a 71.5-foot span and 516.7-square-foot area, introduced a 1.7-foot greater chord and rounded wingtips, while enlarged, inboard sections facilitated the installation of wider, 33.2-inch-diameter engines. Bleed air replaced its predecessor’s boot deicing system.

The engines themselves, 7,400 thrust-pound Pratt and Whitney Canada PW308Bs designed for the Hawker Horizon business jet, represented a 25-percent power increase over the PW306Bs of the -328JET and introduced thrust reversers.

With a 44,533-pound maximum take off weight, the type had a 425-knot cruise speed and a 900-nautical mile range, now provisioned with a 1,510-US gallon fuel capacity.

Production entailed wings built in and shipped from San Antonio, Texas; fuselage sections assembled by Aermacchi in Italy; final assembly by Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI) in Israel and external painting and cabin fittings in Oberpfaffenhofen.

With the cockpit commonality between the -328 and -428JET, and common pilot type ratings, Fairchild-Dornier marketed them as the ideal pair of entry-level regional jets, envisioning them as 19- and 30-seat turboprop replacements, respectively, because of the market growth expected to be created as a result of their pure-jet appeal.

Launch customer Atlantic Coast, with an order for 30, foresaw considerable flexibility in operating both types, able to tailor capacity to demand.

Fairchild-Dornier’s own strategy, however, soon proved less than successful. A weaker than expected sales foundation created by the original Do-328JET and a dramatic increase in nonrecurring development costs-by some $100 million for its larger-capacity successor-began to cast doubts on its ultimate reality, with unanticipated design changes–including a 4.7-inch rearward wing repositioning, the addition of an aerodynamic fairing, the relocation of the undercarriage, and a reduction in weight-causing first deliveries to Atlantic Coast to be rescheduled from the last quarter of 2002 to the first of 2003.

Although a vitally needed cash infusion from investment firms Clayton, Dubilier, and Rice, and Allianz Capital Partners ultimately kept the company afloat, its much-needed pairing sank, changing market conditions and the paltry number of orders rendering the stretched version unfeasible and forcing its cancellation. Orders and options, totaling 113 from Atlantic Coast, Skyway Airlines, and Air Alps were worth $1 billion at the time.

With amended US pilot scope clauses now permitting an increasing number of 50-seat regional jet operations, and the consistent-and costly-redesign from the smaller baseline version, the Do-428JET had become less attractive, and the decision to cease its development came down to the lesser of two evils-namely, leave a hole in Fairchild-Dornier’s product line or one in its profits.

The company won out, but only until its cash ran out, and on April 2, 2002, now mired in $670 million of debt, it was forced to declare bankruptcy, ceasing to exist.

9. AvCraft Aviation:

Following the path of its former Fokker subsidiary, it only lay in waiting for a financial lifeline to resurrect it, and that was cast from Leesburg, Virginia-based AvCraft Aviation, itself founded in 1999 by pilot and now CEO Ben Bartel as an aircraft completion center then located in Akron, Ohio.

Having already been an approved maintenance facility for both the turboprop and turbofan versions of the Do-328, it was a logical step for it to purchase these and the Do-428JET programs, along with five aircraft still on the production line and 18 completed, but unsold ones; the name, type, and production certificates; and the tooling, spares, and parts, as it did on December 20, 2002.

Although it intended to restart the production line after it had sold these 18 aircraft and actually succeeded in placing a few of them with Hainan Airlines of China, it never realized its goal of targeting the type more to the corporate than airline market, following in Fairchild-Dornier’s footsteps and declaring its own bankruptcy in early 2005, thus ending a program full of promise, but short on profits.

Comparing Different Airline Companies

Choosing between different airline companies is a daunting task. Often, you are caught between flying with the one that costs less and flying with the one that has better offers in terms of amenities. Yes, each airline differs both in air fare costs and features. If you are a budget conscious traveler, you may easily opt for the one who offers a lower rate than those who feature several amenities but are higher in air fare. However, as of budget and features, you must look deeper and consider several factors before settling for an airline company. Here are some of the few things that you need to look out for.

• Safety is a primary concern when boarding any flight. If you are getting aboard a foreign plane and you are a little nervous, you check online about the records of recent incidents where the airline got involved. If there are no untoward accidents and accidents, the plane must be safer.

• Check if the airline you are choosing is blacklisted. The government has a copy of these airlines using the names of the countries where these planes originate from. They are often in this list because of poor facilities which includes both the aircraft and the airport. Although they can use their existing planes for travel, they will not be removed from the blacklist unless they can show that they already upgraded their facilities. Since they are allowed to use their existing aircraft, it simply means that you are flying at your own risk.

• Although reading the reviews about these airlines can give you an idea about their service and aircraft quality, it is wise that you do not set for what you read. Often times, those who write negative reviews encountered a single incident which does not necessarily mean that they could happen just the same to you. Therefore, before concluding, read about the entire story to know where the reviewer is coming from.

• Awards build the credibility of different airline companies. If an airline won an award on cleanliness, excellent service and assistance or punctuality, things like this may encourage you to settle for that airline. In case you are sick and you are traveling alone, you know that the person will take care of you until you reach your destination.

• If you are choosing between two airlines that are of the same fare, do not hesitate to check the facilities. The most important of which is the chair. Since you are traveling, you must choose the one with seats that are more comfortable over those that will only give you back pain and stress.

• Lastly, compare the fees. Smaller airlines often charge smaller fees because of limited facilities and services that they can provide. However, if you are boarding major airlines, you may see a slight discrepancy on the fare rates. Aside from this, you must also check the allowable baggage weight that you can carry. Different airline companies have different baggage weight allowed. Therefore, consider also the convenience of traveling and transferring flights when choosing the right airline.

How to Make a Girl Come Quickly and Effortlessly

Imagine a sex life where regardless of how long it went for, or how hard you wanted to, you never reached orgasm.

It’d be pretty frustrating, right?

Sadly, that’s what about 70% of women go through every single day.

Many men are waking up to the fact that their partner isn’t getting the sexual satisfaction she craves, and to their credit, are seeking out a solution to the problem. However, many of you reading this article are probably still unsure of how to give a girl multiple, mind-blowing orgasms that she know she desperately needs.

That’s where I come in. In this article, I’m going to show you exactly how you can make your girl come quickly, easily, and effortlessly, using a simple, idiot-proof three-step formula.

Step 1: Build Sexual Tension

With all that goes on in our lives these days, it’s easy for us to lose touch with our inherent sexuality. For guys, this usually isn’t a big problem – we’re so highly sexually charged to begin with, that it doesn’t exactly take a lot for it to awaken.

Women, on the other hand, are a whole different story.

As opposed to men, who are generally more sexually charged the longer it’s been since they’ve had sex, women work the opposite way. That is to say, they are at their horniest when they are having regular orgasms.

In order to make a woman orgasm quickly and effortlessly, we have to re-awaken her sexuality. We do this first mentally, then physically. The mental component is called sexual tension.

Building sexual tension, whilst easy when you know how, is a whole subject in and of itself. For the purposes of this article, just understand that it involves getting a girl’s mind to be receptive to any sexual advances you make. Ways to do this may include light touching, a certain look, saying certain things, flirting, and much more.

Once you have built a decent amount of sexual tension, you can move on to the next step.

Step 2: Foreplay

Being able to perform powerful, arousing foreplay is one of the best skills a man can have in the bedroom.

If sexual tension is the key to awakening a woman’s mental sexuality, foreplay is the key to re-aquainting her body with her sexual side. Again, there really isn’t enough room in this article to be able to reveal the secrets to amazing foreplay, but essentially it revolves around “firing up” her nerves and putting her body in a highly sexually charged state.

 

Step 3: Direct Sexual Stimulation

If you have built sexual tension correctly, and have given your girl amazing foreplay, she’s 90% of the way to having amazing, powerful orgasms already.

Having said that, obviously the actual physical stimulation is still extremely vital in making her come.

Again, unfortunately, there just isn’t room in this article to give a thorough and in-depth explanation of how to use the clitoris, G-spot, and vaginal nerve endings in order to satisfy a woman’s sexual cravings. We don’t have the space to get into a discussion of primary and secondary stimulation, or the multitude of “hot spots” that are part of the female body, or how to use mental stimulation in tandem with physical stimulation in order to give her powerful, mind-blowing orgasms.

What you have just read is the basic skeletal outline of everything you need to know in order to make a girl come quickly and effortlessly. If you apply this roadmap, there is no doubt in my mind that your girl will have the most powerful orgasms of her life.

Cheap Flights to Washington, DC

Washington DC is a great city to visit on family vacation. Washington DC is so rich in culture and history that it hard not to feel patriotic and inspired while visiting. Cheap flights to Washington DC can provide a great way to spend a long weekend in the nation's capital, or staying for longer if you have the time. Washington, DC has so much to offer, especially to those who are enthralled by the many mysteries of history, and want to see the famous monuments and government administration buildings that they have seen only on television or in the movies.

There are three airports that service the Washington DC area – including Dulles International, Washington National and Baltimore-Washington International Airport. Each of the three airports is extremely busy – as you might imagine – from the influx of tourists and from those who work and commute back and forth to DC for government business. Cheap flights to Washington DC can land at anyone of these airports and put the traveler in very close proximity to Washington DC attractions and must-sees.

There are a lot of freebies in Washington DC that makes this vacation spot an excellent choice for the budget conscious. The National Mall holds the key to all the major monuments. Walking around the mall can take up to five days to thoroughly investigate all of the attractions along the National Mall. The Lincoln Monument sits on one end of the Mall and the Washington Monument sits in the middle with the capital building as a back drop. The Lincoln Monument is surreal up close and there are no pictures that do it justice; it is an overwhelming site to behold. On clear days the Washington Monument is clearly reflected in the reflection pool that the mall is built around. There is the World War II veteran's memorial and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. There are ten Smithsonian Museums located along the National Mall; each one can take at least four hours to wander through. There is so much history along the mall. Each building on the Mall is free to enter, there is a box in front of the building to make pledges but it is not required. There are other sights that must be seen on a trip to Washington DC. The White House, of course is a must. The White House only offers tours at the request of a member of congress, so contact your local congressman way ahead of the planned trip to inquire about getting a tour scheduled. The Supreme Court is also open to the public. The US Holocaust Museum and the Library of Congress are also must sees while in the Washington DC area.

The least expensive way to see the nation's capital may be to purchase a vacation package that includes your hotel accommodations, airfare, and rental car while in DC. These packages typically cost the average travelers hundreds of dollars less for their overall trip.

Cheap flights to Washington DC can make a family trip to the nation's capital a real possibility. It is a trip every American should make to feel the pride in being an American first hand.